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Search acronyms, definitions, and terms related to research administration, management, and compliance.


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A-110 – Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations, a circular published by the Office of Management and Budget that sets forth standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies in the administration of grants to and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations.

A-133 – Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations, a circular that sets forth standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies for the audit of States, local governments, and non-profit organizations expending Federal awards.

A-21 – "Cost Principles for Educational Institutions," a circular published by the Office of Management and Budget that establishes principles for determining costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other agreements with educational institutions.

AAUAmerican Association of Universities

After-the-Fact Activity Certification – Retrospective effort reporting option selected by WUSTL which asks researchers to legally certify that their salary distribution reflects the proportional allocation of activities paid for by that salary.

Academic Fraud – A deliberate effort to deceive, including plagiarism, fabrication of data, misrepresentation of historical sources, tampering with evidence, selective suppression of unwanted or unacceptable results, and theft of ideas.

ACGME - Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education

ADAAmericans with Disability Act

Advance Account – An account that is set up in the University's accounting system (FAS) prior to the award documents being received from the funding agency. An advance account is open as of the beginning date of the anticipated award period.

Advance Payment – A type of payment in which payment is received before financial reports are submitted.

AFOSRAir Force Office of Scientific Research (DOD)

AHAAmerican Heart Association

AAALACAssociation for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International

Allocable – A cost that can be assigned to a project that meets a specific project objective based on relative benefits received.

Allowable Costs – Determined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the sponsor's requirements and/or university policy. OMB Circular A-21 defines allowable costs as those that are:

  • Reasonable
  • Allocable to the project
  • Given consistent treatment by use of generally accepted accounting principles
  • Conform to any limitations or exclusions set forth by the sponsored agreement or OMB Circular A-21.

AMAAmerican Medical Association

Amendment – Any change to a contractual agreement needing official signature.

ANAAdministration for Native Americans

AO - Administrative​ Official​

AOAAdministration on Aging

AOR - Authorized Organizational Representative

AROArmy Research Office

Audit – Formal examination of the transactions, controls, and systems of an organization or individual. An audit may also include examination of compliance with applicable terms, laws, and regulations.

Audits (types of):

    • Internal audits
    • External audits
    • Funding agency audits

Authorized Signature – The signature of a University official who is designated to give assurances, make commitments, and execute such documents on behalf of Washington University as may be required by federal and state agencies and other organizations that provide financial assistance to the University; the signature of an authorized official certifies that commitments made on grant proposals or contract agreements can be honored; and ensures that all sponsored agreements conform to federal regulations, agency guidelines, and University policies.

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BAFO (Best and Final Offer) - Best practice is any practice, knowledge, know-how or experience that has proven to be valuable or effective within one organization and may have applicability to other organizations. (Chevron)

BLMBureau of Land Management

Budget – The amount of spending authority awarded by outside funding sources that the University has a legal claim to collect.

Budget Period – Funding period of an award.

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Capital Equipment – An article of property that is not permanently attached to buildings or grounds and that has an acquisition cost of $2,000 or more (exclusive of sales and/or use tax, freight, and installation) and a life expectancy of one year or more

CAG – Compliance Advisory Group

CAS – Cost Accounting Standards

Carry Forward – Unexpended funds carried from one budget period to another.

CASBCost Accounting Standards Board

CDCCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

CFRCode of Feder​al Regulations

Change in Status (NIH ONLY) – Grantee is required to notify and obtain approval from the NIH if the PI or other key personnel named in the notice of grant award (NGA) will reduce his/her time devoted to the project by 25 or more percent from the level that was approved at the time of the award (e.g. a proposed change from 40% to 30% or less effort).

CIRC​​- Conflicts of Interest Review Committee

Clinical trial – An agreement to test drugs, devices, or other controlled substances for FDA approval or for-profit corporations. A clinical study involves the use of humans; a pre-clinical study may involve animal subjects.

COGRCouncil on Government Relations

COIConflict of Interest

Competing Proposal – Proposal for funding that is not guaranteed and the application is pooled with other proposals for review.

Compliance Advisory Group (CAG)

Compliant – The state of being in accordance with the relevant Federal or regional authorities and their requirements.

CIRC - Conflicts of Interest Review Committee

Consortium – Two or more institutions working on the same research project, either funded directly by the supporting agency or one prime institution subcontracting out the funds to the other members of the consortium.

Consultant – An individual whose expertise is required by the Principal Investigator to perform the research. (A consultant may be a paid or unpaid contributor.)

Continuation Application – An application for continued support on current projects already funded by the sponsor.

Continuation Proposal/Renewal Proposal – Additional funding increments for projects beyond the original grant period. See specific sponsor guidelines for submission requirements.

Contract – A written, legal agreement between an institution and an awarding agency normally involving the expectation of an economic benefit on the part of the contractor and the generation of a tangible product, service, or other consideration in return for sponsored support.

Contributed Effort – Effort expended on a sponsored project that the sponsor does not compensate for; a form of cost sharing.

Cooperative Agreement – A funding mechanism that can be used by federal agencies when a program requires more agency involvement and restrictions than a grant but requires less agency supervision than a contract.

Co-PI – Co-Principal Investigator

Copyright – A copyright protects an original work, set down in a fixed form or medium of expression, e g., texts, computer software, visual and audio materials. It protects the embodiment of an idea, as opposed to the idea itself. A copyright term is 75 years from the date of publication or 100 years from the time the work was created.

Cost Reimbursable – An agreement in which the sponsor funds the project to the extent described in the award notice. The University is reimbursed by the sponsor only for actual costs incurred; any unspent funds revert to the sponsor.

Cost Sharing – Is included in the program budget when required by the sponsor, and in conformance with the requirements in Circular A-110.

Cost Transfer – Process of moving expenses from one account/ fund/ sub/ object code to another.

CR – Cost Reimbursement.

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DA – Department Administrator

DCMDivision of Comparative Medicine

Direct Costs – Those costs that can be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity, or that can be directly assigned to such activities relatively easily with a high degree of accuracy (OMB Circular A-21).

DRCDisclosure Revi​ew Committee​. Known now as the Conflict of Interest Review Committee.

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EA – Expanded Authorities

Effort – The amount of time, usually expressed as a percentage of the total, that a faculty member or other employee spends on a project. Effort is certified and documented on the Personal Activity Report (PAR).

Effort Certification – Federal requirement of OMB Circular A-21 that all effort applied to federally-sponsored contracts or grants be verified after the fact to see that effort reasonably reflects the planned distribution of pay.

Effort Reporting – After the fact certification of effort and is paid directly from a federal or federal flow through award.

EH&SEnvironmental Health & Safety

Encumbrances – A specific amount of funds that has been set aside in an account for the receipt of an order or the payment of an invoice. Encumbrances reduce the available balance of an account.

Equipment – Generally, articles of non-expendable tangible personal property having a useful life and an acquisition cost which meet or exceed the established thresholds for defining equipment. Equipment is not a replacement part or component returning a piece of equipment to its original condition. If a component increases the capability of the original equipment and has an acquisition cost that meets or exceeds the established equipment cost thresholds, it is considered a capital item. (The capitalization level is $2500 and greater and a useful life of over two years).

eRA electronic Research Administration The electronic Research Administration (eRA) is the NIH infrastructure that provides for the secure receipt, review and administration of electronic grants. eRA provides full grant life-cycle systems: from initiative management, through receipt, referral to proper reviewers, electronically assisted review, flexible award processing, post award program management and oversight, fiscal administration, reporting and closeout. As of August 2006, eRA is in use by about 7,300 research institutions worldwide. It integrates the NIH eRA Commons and IMPAC II projects.

eSubmission - Electronic Submission of proposals.

Ethics – Thinking systematically about morals and conduct; Making judgments about right and wrong; Guidelines for action that draw on what is right or wrong; Beyond talk and thinking to performance and action.

Expanded Authorities – Policy implemented by some federal granting agencies that delegates certain prior approval authorities to grantee institutions. This delegation allows for internal university approval of administrative and spending actions, thus avoiding delays in project progress.

External Sales – An exchange of tangible or intangible property or services between the University and external customers for monetary consideration. External sales may be subject to federal and state taxes.

Extramural Support – Funding for research, training or public service programs provided by federal or private sources outside the university.

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F&A – Facilities and Administrative Costs

Facilities and Administration Costs (F & A) – In its 1996 revision of OMB Circular A-21, the Federal government replaced the term "indirect costs" with "facilities and administrative costs." According to OMB Circular A-21, F&A costs are "costs that are incurred for common or joint objectives and, therefore, cannot be identified readily and specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity." Examples include operation and maintenance expenses, and costs incurred for sponsored projects administration. Example: "The total cost of a sponsored project is comprised of the direct costs plus a portion of the F&A costs of the institution."

Faculty Financial Reporting System (FFR) - The Faculty Financial Reporting system (FFR) provides WU faculty with integrated information from the University’s financial systems. Its primary function is to assist faculty in the active financial management of their sponsored projects (grants and contracts) and department funds. The FFR provides the user with on-line summary and detailed reports (report may also be downloaded to PDF and Excel formats) from data contained within FIS (accounting system) and HRMS (payroll). The information is available via secure web site so that it can be accessed from anywhere and at anytime.

FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations – The Federal Acquisition Regulations System is established for the codification and publication of uniform policies and procedures for acquisition by all executive agencies. It consists of rules and regulations governing business with Federal Government. These regulations govern all aspects of federal procurement.

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FDP – Federal Demonstration Partnership

Federal False Claims A​ct​ – Qui Tam: Allows private citizens to file a lawsuit in the name of the U.S. Government charging fraud by government contractors and others who receive or use government funds, and share in any money recovered.

FFP – Firm Fixed-Price

FFR – Faculty Financial Reporting System

Firm Fixed Price – A type of agreement whereby payment is not based on actual costs expended but upon a mutually agreed upon price.

Fiscal Year – A year of business activity other than the calendar year. At the University, the fiscal year begins July 1 and ends June 30 the following year. Fiscal years are associated with accounting and budget year transactions.

Fixed Fee – In a "fixed fee" award, the PI agrees to accomplish project objectives within a specific timeframe for a set dollar amount per patient, per hour, or other unit. The total award amount is based on an estimated number of units and is subject to downward adjustment based on the actual number of units completed. Sponsor approval is required to exceed the estimated number of units. The fee per unit remains constant, even if the actual cost per unit is above or below that amount. Any over expenditures are the responsibility of the department, and earned unspent revenue does not revert to the sponsor. If the deliverables are not completed within the award period, the contract must be extended.

Fixed Price – In a "fixed price" award, the PI agrees to accomplish project objectives within a specific timeframe for a set dollar amount. If the deliverables are not completed within the award period, the contract must be extended. The award amount also remains constant, even if actual costs for the project are above or below it. Any over expenditures are the responsibility of the department, and unspent funds do not revert to the sponsor.

FOIA Freedom of Information Act

Foreign Travel – Foreign travel includes travel outside of the United States and its territories and possessions (Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Canal Zone) and Canada. A trip is considered foreign travel for all legs of the itinerary if the traveler does not return to his or her post prior to departure for a foreign destination.

FTE – Full-Time Equivalent

FTTP – Full-Time Training Position

Full and Open Competition – The solicitation of bids from prospective suppliers that is used to assure that all responsible bidders are permitted to compete for the procurement.

Fund accounting is the procedure by which financial resources are classified for accounting and reporting purposes in accordance with activities or objectives specified by donors, by regulations, restrictions or by limitations imposed by outside sources.

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G&C – Office of Grants and Contracts. See Office of Sponsored Research Services.

GAAP – Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

GAO US Government Accountability Office

GASBGovernmental Accounting Standards Board

GFE – Government Furnished Equipment

Gift – Funds are classified as gifts if the following characteristics exist: (1) funds are given voluntarily without expectation of any tangible compensation. Under ordinary circumstances, the funds are awarded irrevocably; (2) funds are given for unrestricted use or for general support restricted to a specific area or purpose. Beyond a possible designation of use, the donor does not impose contractual requirements on the award; (3) any subsequent reporting on the use of the funds to the donor is not a condition of the receipt of the funds.

Grant – In general terms, awards given to the University for a specific purpose to support instruction, research or public service. "Grant" is also a specific type of award (as opposed to contract or cooperative agreement). In this context, "grant" is a pledge of support where the sponsor has little involvement in conducting the project.

Grant Administrator – University employee who helps manage the sponsored project.

Grant/Contract Officer – Sponsor's employee who is officially responsible for the project's business management.

Grantee – A grantee is the recipient of a grant. When the university accepts a grant award, on behalf of an individual, it becomes the grantee.

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HHSUS Department of Health and Human Services

HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

HRPOHuman Research Protection Office

Human Subjects – A living individual about whom an investigator conducting research obtains data through intervention or interaction with the individual; identifiable private information.

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IACUCInstitutional Animal Care Use Committee

IBCInstitutional Biological and Chemical Safety Committee

Identifiable Information – Information from which the identity of the subject is or may be readily ascertained or associated

IGA - Intergovernmental Agreement

IND – Investigational New Drug Application

Indirect Costs – Costs that cannot be specifically identified with a particular sponsored project or other direct activity such as instruction or research. Instead, they are generally related to departmental operations and administrative activities that support sponsored projects and other institutional activities. The Federal government has replaced "indirect costs" with the term "facilities and administration (F&A) costs."

Indirect Costs Rate or F & A Cost Rate – A composite rate applied to sponsored projects as a percentage of the sponsored project's direct costs for the purpose of charging the sponsored project its share of the University's indirect/F&A costs. The Federally negotiated Indirect/F&A Cost Rates for research and other sponsored activities are developed by the University in accordance with OMB Circular A-21 and negotiated with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the University's Federal cognizant agency. Example: "The indirect costs for a project are computed by multiplying the direct costs by the indirect cost rate." The University uses the term "F&A cost rate" on its forms.

Informal Proposal – A short (generally 2-5 pages) description of the proposed project that does not involve a commitment of university resources or a signature on behalf of the university. An informal proposal may include a total cost estimate but does not include a budget and is not expected to result directly in an award. The purpose of an informal proposal is usually to inform and interest the potential sponsor enough to request a more detailed formal proposal. Also sometimes called a letter proposal, mini-proposal, preliminary proposal, pre-application, or concept paper.

Informed Consent – The voluntary agreement obtained from a subject (or the subject's legally authorized representative) to participate in research or related activity, before participating in that activity. The consent must permit the individual (or legally authorized representative) to exercise free power of choice without undue inducement or any element or deceit, fraud, force, duress, or other form of coercion or constraint.

In-kind Contribution – A non-cash commitment (such as contributed effort, facilities use, or supplies) to share the costs of a sponsored project.

Intellectual Property – Is a broad term that encompasses the various intangible products of the intellect of inventors. These include patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how, and other proprietary concepts, including an invention, scientific or technological development, and even computer software and genetically engineered microorganisms

Internal Control - Is broadly defined as a process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management, and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding achievement of objectives in the following categories: effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting, compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Invention – A patentable invention is any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or new and useful improvement thereof (35 United States Code 101).

Inventor – All personnel who produce a development that must be disclosed to the office of Patents & Technology Marketing in accordance with the Regents' Patents and Technology Transfer Policy.

Invitation to Bid – Written documents soliciting pricing and/or technical proposals to supply goods or services as specified in the requesting document. Correct use of Invitations to Bid constitutes full and open competition. See Request for Proposal (RFP).

Invoicing – A type of payment in which the University sends an invoice to the sponsor.

IP – Intellectual Property

IRB – Institutional Review Board.

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Key Personnel – Term used by Washington University to describe individuals who are responsible for the "design, conduct or reporting of research." The Principal Investigator, and any other individual identified by the PI on a sponsored research project, is included in this category.

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Letter of Credit – A type of payment in which funds to cover project expenses are transferred to the University's commercial bank from the Federal Reserve Bank.

Letter of Intent – A letter of intent advises a funding agency that an application will be submitted in response to their solicitation. The letter may contain general program information, unofficial cost estimates, and a request for specific application guidelines, instructions and forms.

Letter of Inquiry – Initiated by an applicant to determine if a proposed project is within a private agency's fundable program areas and to request agency policy and program information, as well as instructions and forms.

License – Legal permission from a patent owner to practice an invention. The license term is negotiated with the licensee.

Limited Submission – When a program limits the number or dollar value of proposals that each institution may submit.

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Mandatory Cost Sharing – Cost sharing that is required by the sponsor, is stated on the Notice of Grant/Contract Award (NOGA), must be documented, and must be reported to the sponsor.

Mandatory Matching – Matching that is required by the sponsor, is stated on the Notice of Grant/Contract Award (NOGA), must be documented, and must be reported to the sponsor.

Matching Funds – Funds raised from other sources to increase the level of support provided by the granting agency. The granting agency will provide additional funds equal to the private matching funds raised for the project. Normally, this is done on a dollar-for-dollar basis. Federal funds may not be used for matching on another federal project. Unlike cost sharing, neither personnel effort against the project nor reduction in indirect costs can be used for the matching component. Some Federal agencies require matching in order to receive an award.

Material Transfer Agreement​ (MTA) – Material transfer agreement (MTA's) are legal contracts stating conditions under which a proprietary research material is being transferred from one institution or company to another.

Memorandum of Agreement – A contractual arrangement between the Washington University and a corporate sponsor that stipulates the terms and conditions under which specific work is performed.

Modified Total Direct Costs (MTDC) – Total direct costs less certain budget categories. Budget categories to be subtracted from total direct cost for the federally negotiated IDC rate are as follows: Equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care and tuition remission, rental costs, scholarships, and fellowships as well as subgrants/subcontracts shall be excluded from the modified total direct costs (from OMB Circul​ar A-21​).

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NACUBONational Association of College and University Business Officers

NCE – No Cost Extension

NCINational Cancer Institute

NGA – Notice of Grant Award

NIANational Institute on Aging

NIAIDNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIAMSNational Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

NIBIBNational Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

NIGMSNational Institute of General Medical Sciences

NIH National Institutes of Health

NIMHNational Institute of Mental Health

No Cost Extension – A request to extend the period of performance for a project, without additional funding.

Non-Competitive Renewal – For multiyear projects, sponsors may require annual applications for continued funding. These applications do not compete for funds.

Notice of Grant Award (NOGA) – A document that provides information regarding the award's important terms and conditions. It should be referred to by PI's and departments to provide guidance in managing the project.

NRSR – Ruth L. Kirschtein National Research Service Award

NSFNational Science Foundation.

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OBANIH Office of Biotechnology Activities

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-21Offi​ce of Management and Budget Circular A-21, Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements with Educational Institutions​. This document establishes uniform regulations that the University must follow in regards to determining costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other agreements with educational institutions. Each Federal agency applies these laws in its own regulations that are listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and explained in its policy handbook (if it has one). The OMB Circular is the backbone of agency regulations; the agency cannot impose regulations that are inconsistent with the Circular or impose additional requirements.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110Office of Management and Budget Circular A-110, Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations. This document establishes uniform regulations for each Federal agency to follow in regards to the administration of projects sponsored by the Federal government. In addition, each Federal agency has its own regulations that are listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and explained in its policy handbook (if it has one).

Office of Research Integrity (ORI) - Federal office that promotes integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the Public Health Service (PHS)

Office of Sponsored Research Services- ​​OSRS, formerly known as the Research Office (RO) and Grants and Contracts (G&C), reviews and provides institutional signature for all WUSTL proposals, grants, and university-wide contract administration for non-clinical contracts. ​

OFMNIH Office of Financial Management – The Office of Financial Management (OFM) is at the hub of program budget and resource accounting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), developing, presenting, executing and reconciling a multi-billion dollar budget, that is appropriated to the 27 institutes and centers.

OGC – Office of the Executive Vice Chancellor and General Counsel

OHRPOffice for Human Research Protections (previously OPRR)

OMB Office of Management and Budget

OTMOffice of Technology Management

Other Support – All financial resources, whether Federal, non-Federal, commercial or institutional, available in direct support of an individual's research endeavors, including but not limited to research grants, cooperative agreements, contracts and/or institutional awards. Training awards, prizes, or gifts are not included.

Overdrafts – An individual account in which the expenditures and encumbrances have exceeded the budget. An account is considered to be in overdraft if there is a negative balance available, regardless of the cause.

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PA – Program Announcement

Patent – A patent is a grant of property by the United States government to the inventor giving the owner of the patent the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention in the U.S. or importing it to this country. A U.S. patent is granted for 20 years.

Peer Review – A process utilized by some federal and private agencies, whereby committees of research investigators in the same area of research or with the necessary expertise (from other institutions) review and recommend applications to the funding agency.

Personnel Activity Report System (PARS)

  • Circular A-21 requirement
  • Required to be completed according to established timetables (academic reports on some campuses are completed every six months).
  • Directly paid from a federal or federal flow through award.

PDS - Proposal Development System

PHSPublic Health Service

PLA – Patent License Agreement

Pre-Award Account – An account established to begin working on a project before the project start date.

Pre-Award Costs – Costs that are incurred before the beginning dates of an award or budget period but can be associated with the research project.

Principal Investigator (PI) – The individual primarily responsible for a research grant, cooperative agreement, training project, contract or other sponsored agreement. The Principal Investigator is accountable for the design, direction, oversight, conduct, and successful completion of the sponsored project, and for managing any collaborative relationships.

Program Income – Program income is gross income earned by a research grant recipient from the activities, part or all of which are borne as a direct cost by the grant. Examples are fees for services performed under the grant, rental or usage fees charged for use of equipment purchased with grant funds, third party patient reimbursements for hospital or medical services paid from the grant, funds generated by the sale of commodities, such as cell lines or research animals developed from or paid for from the grant, and patent or copyright royalties.

Project Period – The total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved. A project period may consist of one or more budget periods.

Proposal – A set of documents containing a descriptive narrative of an idea and a budget to be submitted to a funding agency for sponsored support.

Proposal Development System (PDS) - Originally called the Grants Budgeting System (G-Bud), the purpose of PDS upon its creation was to improve the budget proposal process by reducing the work necessary to produce proposal budget drafts and by decreasing the time required for review of draft and final budgets by school and central administrators. Over the last 10 years another important benefit of PDS has surfaced as the system has been able to guide administrators in developing a sound and compliant budget through such features as limitations on certain cost categories. The system is intended to be flexible and comprehensive, but streamlined. PDS has the capability to calculate cost sharing, a change in fiscal years, primary/joint appointments, appropriate facilities and administrative (F&A) rates, supplement proposals, program project budgets, and to submit system-to-system (S2S) with Grants.gov. Also see the AISHelp page for instructions.

Proprietary Research – Research sponsored by non-governmental entity or individual that involves restrictions on the distribution or publication of the research findings or results following completion, for a specified period or for indefinite duration.

Protocol – The methodology used in conducting a sponsored project

Purchase Order – Authorization sent to a vendor to supply goods or services in return for payment.

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Rebudgeting – Process by which funds available for spending are reallocated between budget categories to allow best use of funds to accomplish project goals.

Request for Application (RFA) – Announcements that indicate the availability of funds for a topic of interest to a sponsor. Proposals submitted in response to RFA's generally result in the award of a grant.

imageRequest for Proposals (RFP) – An RFP contains specific instructions for technical and cost proposals, and usually include a sample contract with terms and conditions that need to be reviewed and approved prior to the submission of the proposal. The institutional endorsement for this type of proposal is considered an official offer; therefore, it must meet certain requirements before if can be signed and submitted.

Research Office – The Administrative office responsible for handling pre-award and award issues for Danforth Campus faculty. This office also handles contracts for both the Danforth Campus and Medical School. See the Office of Sponsored Research Services​.

Risk Assessment Strategy – A management framework that narrows the band of hazards and uncertainty and widens the avenues of academic/ business opportunity.

Risk Management – The identification, analysis and measurement of risks (hazards/ opportunity/ uncertainty) and selection of the best method of treating the risk.

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S2S - System-to-System.

SAMHSASubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

SASS - Strategic Application Support Services

SBIR/STTRSmall Business Technology Transfer Program

Scheduled Payments – Fixed amounts are paid on a set time frame.

Single Source Acquisition – Issuing an award to a subcontractor without full and open competition. This may be done if an award is the result of a collaboration (where the ideas, concepts, and methodology were developed by the two parties jointly). There are restrictions on the use of this means of procurement and documentation must show justification for using single source acquisition.

Site Visit – An agency-initiated review of a proposed project conducted at the applicant's institution.

SNAP – Streamlined Non-competing AWARD Process

SO - Signin​g Official​

Sole Source Acquisition – A procurement that does not provide full and open competition, but is effected because only one source is available.

SOW – Statement of Work

Special Purpose Equipment – Equipment that can be used only for research, scientific, or other technical activities.

Sponsor – An external funding source that enters into an agreement with the university to support research, instruction, public service or other sponsored activities. Sponsors include private businesses, corporations, foundations and other not-for-profit organizations, other universities, and federal, state and local governments.

Sponsored Project – A project supported by an external funding source under a mutually binding agreement that restricts the use of funds to the approved project and stipulates other conditions with which the university must comply. Sponsored projects typically:

· Are initiated by a formal proposal and award notice.
· Are restricted to a particular purpose as described in the proposal.
· Require technical and/or financial reports.
· Entail other administrative requirements.

Sponsored Projects Accounting (SPA) – The administrative office responsible for financial post award.

Stipend – A payment made in accordance with preestablished levels, to an individual to provide for their living expenses during the training period of a fellowship or training project.

Strategic Application Support Services (SASS) - The University is currently developing strategic application support services and infrastructure to expand faculty capacity to apply for, receive, and manage collaborative, interdisciplinary and multi-party research and training awards. This initiative will develop information systems and support including: RFA reviews, proposal development, proposal pre-reviews, libraries and successful proposal templates as well as providing enhanced access and knowledge of University core facilities and centers to better leverage funds and existing institutional resources.

Subaward – An award of financial assistance in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, made under an award by a recipient to an eligible subrecipient or by a subrecipient to a lower tier subrecipient. The term includes financial assistance when provided by any legal agreement, even if the agreement is called a contract, but does not include procurement of goods and services nor does it include any form of assistance that is excluded from the OMB Circular A-110 definition of "award" in paragraph (e).

Subcontract – An agreement is which personnel at a non-University organization, such as another institution, conduct a part of the programmatic aspect of the project. The key elements of a subcontract include: * a subcontractor is independently responsible for conducting a portion of the workscope; * the arrangement is collaborative, and * the arrangement is generally time-intensive.

Subcontractor – Any supplier, distributor, vendor, or firm that furnishes supplies or services to or for a prime contractor or another subcontractor.

Subrecipient – The legal entity to which a subaward is made and which is accountable to the recipient for the use of the funds provided. The term may include foreign or international organizations (such as agencies of the United Nations) at the discretion of the Federal awarding agency.

Supplement – An increase in the amount of funding by the sponsor to an existing award. Supplemental funding increases the award and extends the award period.

Supplemental Proposal – A proposal requesting additional funds to complete an already approved project.

System-to-System (S2S) - Terminology used to refer to submitting proposals directly from our Proposal Development System (PDS) to Grants.gov​. This occurs without the use of any third-party software employed by Grants.gov (e.g., Pure Edge or Adobe Forms).

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Technical Report – A report submitted by an investigator on the progress and/or status of a project supported by sponsored funds. Narrative reports are part of the conditions of many sponsored agreements; may be submitted as an interim report, with continuation proposals, requests for supplemental funding, or at the termination of a sponsored project.

Total Direct Cost (TDC) – All of the project's direct costs.

Total Project Costs – The total allowable direct and indirect costs of a project.

Trademark – A name, work, symbol, or device which allows the trademark owner to dictate its use in identifying a product, e.g., logos and brand names.

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Unallowable Costs – Unallowable cost means any cost which, under the provisions of any pertinent law, regulation, or sponsored agreement cannot be included in prices, cost reimbursements, or settlements under a Government sponsored agreement to which it is allocable. (CAS 9905.505).

Unrestricted Funds – Funds having no requirements or restrictions as to use. Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements are considered to be restricted funds.

Unsolicited Proposal – Proposals submitted to a sponsor that are not in response to a RFP, RFA, or program announcement.

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Voluntary Cost Sharing – Cost sharing that is not required by the sponsor, is stated on the Notice of Grant/Contract Award (NOGA), and although not reported to the sponsor, must be documented through established procedures.

Voluntary Matching – Matching that is not required by the sponsor, is stated on the Notice of Grant/Contract Award (NOGA), and although not reported to the sponsor, must be documented through established procedures.

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